Non-Ferrous

Smelting

Flash Smelter

This is a special type of furnace from construction point of view where primary smelting is done. This furnace requires Mag- Chrome co-sinters with high degree of spinel formation and direct bonding. Magnesia chrome bricks with high degree of spinel formation and bonding providing resistance to high hot abrasion. These are the solutions for Flash Smelter: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks Insulating refractory bricks in the back up lining Castables and mortars Special Features Highly resistant to high hot abrasion Highly resistant to pyrochemical stresses Helping in preventing sulphur attack in uptake.

Isasmelt Reactor

An Isasmelt reactor is an upright-cylindrical shaped steel vessel with molten bath of slag, matte or metal (depending on the application) at the bottom of the furnace. A steel lance is lowered into the bath through a hole in the roof of the furnace, and air or oxygen-enriched air is injected through the lance into the bath. Because of the vigorous agitation caused in the bath, high quality of refractory is needed due to extremely acidic slag. Dalmia-OCL’s Alumina-SiC- Carbon bricks are an excellent solution due to their resistance to erosion and chemical attack from the acidic slag of the furnace. These are the solutions for Isasmelt Reactor: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks Alumina-SiC–Carbon bricks Insulating refractories for back-up lining Ultra-low cement based castables and mortars. Special Features Highly resistant to turbulent effect, erosion and chemical attack Highly resistant to pyrochemical attack and thermal stress from slag splash at the upper level of the furnace.

Reverberatory Furnace

This is a smelting furnace used in copper production treating either roasted calcine or raw copper sulfide concentrate, which encounters similar type of thermo-mechanical stresses as a flash smelter. Dalmia-OCL’s magnesia chrome bricks are known for their superior resistance to sulfur dioxide attack. These are the solutions for Reverberatory Furnace: Direct Bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks Castables and mortar Special Features Excellent resistance to pyrochemical attack at slag bath region Direct bonded bricks show excellent resistance to suplfur dioxide attack

Mitsubishi Furnace

This is the most advanced industrial manifestation of copper making process which employs three furnaces (smelting, electric slag and converting furnace) connected by continuous gravity flow of molten metal. Dalmia-OCL’s Alumina-SiC-Carbon bricks provide excellent resistance to pyrochemical attacks. These are the solutions for Mitsubishi Furnace: Direct Bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks Alumina-SiC-Carbon bricks Insulating refractories Castables and mortars. Special Features Direct bonded bricks show excellent resistance to sulfur dioxide attack Provide excellent resistance to pyrochemical attack

Slag Cleaning

In this furnace, copper rich oxide slags are melted in electric arc furnaces and coke & copper pyrite are added to reduce copper content in the slag. In order to increase reaction rate, slag is over-heated to produce low viscosity aggressive slag. Dalmia-OCL’s Co-clinker series Magnesia Chrome bricks have excellent resistance to fayalatic slag.
Slag Cleaning Furnace

These are the solutions for Slag Cleaning Furnace: Co-clinker series Magnesia Chrome bricks Mortar mixes Special Features Excellent resistance to fayalatic slag

Converting

Teniente Converter

The teniente converter is a horizontal steel barrel with submerged tuyere. This kind of primary smelting is basically used to produce blister copper or high grade matte in a continuous process combined with optimized energy balance. Dalmia-OCL’s direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks are highly resistant to corrosion and infiltration caused by untreated flux. These are the solutions for Teniente Converter: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks with magnesia chrome sinters Castables and mortar mixes Special Features High resistance to thermal spalling and corrosion in tuyere zone High resistance to corrosion and infiltration caused by untreated flux.

PS Converter

In this horizontal converter, blister copper is produced. As it undergoes different thermo-mechanical and pyrochemical stresses, refractories used here need to have high resistance to liquid infiltration and hot erosion. Dalmia-OCL’s Magnesia Chrome bricks are highly resistant to liquid infiltration and hot erosion in the tuyere zone caused by high bath agitation. These are the solutions for PS Converters: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks. Mortar mixes Special Features

Top Blown Rotary Converter

This converter operates in inclined position, which rotates about its horizontal axis for treatment of copper smelter anode slimes to recover precious metal content. These direct bonded Mag-Chrome bricks are excellent resistance to heavy erosion. These are the solutions for Top Blown Rotary Converter: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks Castables and mortar mixes Special Features Excellent resistance to heavy erosion, chemical attacks and thermal shocks High resistance to infiltration of slag, matte and oxide

Mitsubishi Converter

In this converter, copper matte and the limestone are reacted with oxygen enriched air to form blister copper and then separated from the slag by difference in specific gravity. Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks from Dalmia-OCL are highly resistant to heavy erosion. These are the solutions for Mitsubishi Converter: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks Castables and mortar mixes Special Features Excellent resistance to heavy erosion High resistance to infiltration of slag, matte and oxide

Flash Converter

this furnace, blister copper is produced from matte, a process similar to the flash smelter process. In the flash converter, lime is also used to form calcium ferrite slag with high copper oxide. Dalmia-OCL’s Magnesia Chrome bricks are highly resistant to pyrochemical stresses caused by fayalatic slag and matte infiltration in the settler. These are the solutions for Flash Converter: Magnesia Chrome bricks made with fused magnesia chrome grains Castables and mortars Special Features High resistance to high hot abrasion caused by the turbulence of gas laden particles along with thermal stresses in the reaction shaft. High resistance to pyrochemical stresses caused by fayalatic slag and matte infiltration in the settler.

Refining

Anode Refining Furnace

In this cylindrical rotary furnace, blister copper is converted to anodic copper through blowing and poling. Oxidations and reduction reactions occur in this furnace to produce refined copper ready for casting. Dalmia’s High Alumina bricks help in preventing slag and metal infiltration during production of copper. These are the solutions for Anode Furnace: Direct bonded Magnesia Chrome bricks High alumina bricks Mortar mixes and castables Special Features High resistance to hot erosion caused by thermal shock in poling area Prevention of redox reaction Prevention of slag and metal infiltration.

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